While rhinoplasty surgery may be performed for purely cosmetic reasons to improve appearance, often the primary or simultaneous goal is to restore the ability to breathe through the nose. In this case, the surgery is more specifically referred to as a functional rhinoplasty. This is different from a septoplasty, which involves only repair of the internal wall that divides the nasal cavities, or from a cosmetic rhinoplasty, which is done to improve appearance. A functional rhinoplasty typically involves repair of the nasal valves, which is the medical term for the internal cartilage valves within the nostrils. These can be congenitally narrow (meaning you are born that way), collapse with age, or can be scarred from prior surgery. While surgery on the nasal valves is usually performed to restore breathing, it typically necessitates some type of change to the appearance of the nose.